Research shows that there is a possibility of a relationship lying between cardiac problems and smoking which mainly affects women, both of the black and the white populations.
How Is Smoking Related To Pulse Pressure And Cardiac Problems?
Persistent smoking habits do have a substantial impact on pulse pressure.
The variation between the top reading (systolic blood pressure) and the lower reading (diastolic blood pressure) is referred to as pulse pressure.
The study co-author Kara Whitaker who is the assistant professor of health and human physiology at the Lowa University mentions that the more the variations in the top reading and the lower reading, the more is the risk factor.
Pulse pressure is measured using the unit mmHg (a millimeter of mercury). 40-60 is the ideal range of variation in any human body. More than 60 leads to a very high risk of cardiovascular problems as said by the study author Rachel Luehrs, an assistant professor of exercise science at North Central College, Naperville, Illinois.
Researchers have made an analysis in a novel study by collecting 30 years of facts and figures from 4,786 contributors in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. In this study, the changes in blood pressure and their relationship with smoking, race, and other variables were observed. The Black and White women who were regular smokers had a higher pulse pressure as compared to the non-smoking women. It was 1.38 mmHg higher in Black women, and for White women, it was 1.96 mmHg higher. This data was available in the Journal of the American Heart Association.
The relationship of smoking and increased blood pressure with cardiac issues is evident, whereas, it is not clear yet if there is a link within the two also- smoking and blood pressure. There is a rise in blood pressure after smoking a cigarette, but the proofs related to its long-term consequences are varied. There has been evidence in some of the studies that have shown the people smoking for a long time also do have low blood pressure.
Luehrs, who is a doctorate holder in health and human physiology, said that these varied pieces of evidence have inclined them towards moving forward with this study. Luehrs also mentioned that it did not make any sense to associate smoking with decreased blood pressure, as smoking is related to cardiovascular problems only.
The varied data accrued earlier studies related to smoking and blood pressure could be because of the researchers lacking in considering factors like the influence of race, etc. Nicotine addiction and high blood pressure are linked to the impact of racial disparities.
The new study revealed that Black people who are persistent smokers measured 1.01-mmHg higher pulse pressure when compared to non-smokers and White people had 1.50-mmHg higher pulse pressure.
Dr. Robert M. Carey, who is the professor of medicine and dean emeritus of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, answers the question of how higher rates of pulse pressure impact heart problems in smokers.
According to Robert, diastolic blood pressure decreases due to regular smoking and pulse pressure gets increased. Dr. Carey is also a cardiovascular endocrinologist and was not a part of the new study. Carey also questioned if the pulse pressure increase due to smoking also has an effect on cardiac issues. If it is so, stopping to smoke will inverse the effects or not.
Luehrs pointed out that most of the time doctors ignore the pulse pressure in a patient unless he/she is in middle age or old age and this is the major reason why there is an increase in pulse pressure after the age of 50.
The CARDIA study, which is in its 35th year, is still going on and it might be able to give answers to these queries. The objective is to identify all the possibilities that might induce the risk of cardiovascular disease in a human body. Some of them could be eating habits, smoking habits, exercises, alcoholism, etc.