Investigators from the northwest are trying to understand two groups of transcription factors in depth. They want to know how the two groups of transcription factors contribute to the development of diseases and cancer. The researchers suggest that going in-depth to understand how the epigenetic mechanisms that cause the dysregulation of polycomb group (PcG) of proteins and the Trithorax group (TrxG) of proteins can be crucial for understanding the development of novel therapeutic approaches.”
Research: Dysregulation Of Proteins Can Lead To Cancer
The two groups, i.e., Polycomb and Trithorax, were discovered around 80 years ago. They were discovered as Positive and negative regulators of gene expression; it was believed that polycomb was the negative regulator of gene expression and trithorax opposes the functions of polycomb.” said Ali Shilatifard, Ph.D., Senior author of the review paper and chair of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics. These proteins play a crucial role in the development of all Mammals. A previous study suggested that dysregulation of the two groups can promote cancer and neurodevelopment diseases.
PcG proteins are divided into two complexes: Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and similarly Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Both of these control gene expressions by modifying chromatin. PRC1 and PRC2 were considered the only two versions of Polycomb repressive Until very recently, But A recent review paper that was published in the Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology revealed that there are around 100s variants of PCR1 & PCR2. “These variants are characterized by the presence of Polycomb proteins that specifically exist in one complex variant but not in another one,” said Andrea Piunti, Ph.D. and lead author of the paper.
“Moreover, the deregulation of PcG protein activity can develop a tumor; also, there may be a possibility that the proteins can act as a barrier to the diseases and cancer,” added Piunti. The questions that are arising due to these complexities can be solved by observing the roles of Polycomb Repressive Complex variants. Some of the cells, when modified, can act as a barrier to cancer, and others can help in the development of cancer. To conclude this, additional research is required.
Looking on the other side, the Trithorax proteins form multi-protein complexes that repel the repressive development of gene expression, according to the second review paper that was published in Nature Reviews Genetics. Recent researches suggest that 2 families of the TrxG protein, i.e., the Compass family of histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases and the SWI/SNF family of remodeling complexes, play a crucial role in regulating gene expression. Moreover, the dysregulation of the proteins can be helpful for the development of disorders like epileptic seizures, intellectual disability and can also help in the growth of lethal diseases such as cancer. “When compared on the functional level, both families can help an active state of chromatin, and the dysregulation can further lead to the development of many diseases and disorders. The Trxg protein family comes in the list of the most highly mutated group of genes in cancer; around 20% of humans have mutations in the SWI/SNF genes.